A number of supporting administrative and commercial documents must accompany the goods:
Certificate of origin
A document issued to accredit the origin of the goods and required by the importing country for trade policy reasons. EUR.1 and EUR.2 Movement Certificates. Used to certify the origin of a product and, if applicable, benefit from favourable trade terms (tariffs mainly) under an EU preferential trade policy. ATR movement certificate. A customs document used in trade between EU members and Turkey to qualify for preferential tariff treatment.
EUR.1 and EUR.2 movement certificates
Used to certify the origin of a product, and if applicable, benefit from favourable trade terms (tariffs mainly) under an EU preferential trade policy.
ATR movement certificate
A customs document used in trade between EU members and Turkey to qualify for preferential tariff treatment.
AGRIM import certificate
Issued for agricultural and fisheries product imports where provided for by Community legislation.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. It is required to import wild animals and plants and their by-products.
Documents issued by the seller/exporter related to the sales transaction for the exported goods.
Pro forma invoice
Provisional document in which the seller commits to sell goods to the buyer at specified prices and terms. The term ‘pro forma’ must be stated on the invoice.
Document issued by a seller indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices. In certain cases it serves as a sales contract stating the payment terms. It must be signed and include the relevant arbitration clauses for international sales contracts.
Document attached to the commercial invoice that itemises the contents of each package exported.
There are different documents for each mode of transport used in international trade.
The bill of lading (B/L) is a key document in the shipping process. It is a cargo receipt issued by the carrier to the shipper when the container has been received. It also evidences a contract of carriage between the shipper and the carrier. And finally, it serves as a document of title to the goods (the holder of the B/L is the owner of the goods).
Airfreight shipments are accompanied by an air waybill (AWB). It is the most important cargo control document issued by the airline and serves to document the contract of carriage.
This mode of transport includes:
The main document for road transport is the CMR consignment note. The contract of carriage is subject to this document, which also acknowledges receipt of the cargo by the carrier.
The main document for rail transport is the CIM consignment note. As in road transport, it acknowledges receipt of the cargo by the railway company and represents the contract of carriage.
It is advisable to take out an insurance policy covering risks that might arise from the international sales contract. The main types of insurances are transport insurance and the export credit insurance.